Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP), U.S. Army Air Forces program that tasked some 1,100 civilian women with noncombat military flight duties during World War II. The Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP) were the first women to fly U.S. military aircraft.
WASP had its origins with a pair of exceptionally skilled and ambitious female flyers. Prior to the U.S. entry into World War II, Nancy Harkness Love, the youngest American woman to have earned her private pilot’s license until that time, had lobbied for the creation of a program that would allow female pilots to ferry warplanes from factories to air bases. At the same time, Jackie Cochran, one of the most-accomplished pilots of her era, demonstrated the feasibility of such an idea by flying a lend-leasebomber to England and organizing a group of female pilots for war transport service as part of the British Air Transport Auxiliary. By 1942, as the war reduced the number of qualified male pilots available for transport duty, American military leaders had become increasingly receptive to Love’s and Cochran’s ideas.
In September 1942 Love organized the Women’s Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron (WAFS), and more than two dozen of the country’s best female civilian pilots were soon reporting to New Castle Army Air Base in Delaware for transport training. Two months later Cochran persuaded Army Air Forces commander Gen. Henry (“Hap”) Arnold to activate the Women’s Flying Training Detachment (WFTD), a similar program based at Howard Hughes Airport in Houston. The two programs operated separately until August 1943, when they were merged as WASP, with Cochran taking the role as director. More than 25,000 women applied to serve in WASP, although fewer than 10 percent of that number were accepted. Candidates had to be between 21 and 35 years old, possess a commercial pilot’s license, and have the physical endurance to complete the military training regimen that was part of the selection process.
The women of WASP logged more than 60 million miles (100 million km) in the air and flew every type of aircraft in the army air forces. In October 1944 Ann Baumgarter, serving with WASP as a test pilot, became the first American woman to fly a jet aircraft when she took to the skies in a YP-59A Airacomet. In addition to ferrying aircraft, WASP towed targets for aerial and ground-to-air gunnery practice, made test and demonstration flights, and served as flight instructors. Unlike the Women’s Army Corps (WAC) or the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES), the WASP were considered part of the civil service and were not militarized as an official auxiliary force. Thus, the 38 women who were killed while serving in WASP were not entitled to burial expenses or survivor benefits; the cost of shipping home the bodies of the dead was often borne by fellow WASP. In December 1944, as victory in Europe seemed imminent and more male pilots were becoming available, the WASP program was quietly disbanded.
Three decades would pass before women would again be allowed to pilot U.S. military aircraft, and it would be nearly half a century before women would return to the cockpits of U.S. fighter planes. Thanks in large part to the efforts of U.S. Sen. Barry Goldwater, who had himself served as a ferry pilot during World War II, WASP were finally militarized in 1977, an act that made official the veteran status of those who had served. In 2009 U.S. Pres. Barack Obama signed a bill conferring the Congressional Gold Medal upon the WASP. The following year, more than 200 surviving WASP attended a ceremony at the U.S. Capitol to receive their decorations.